Chapter 16. Forces in Galaxies –
In our model there are two opposite working forces in our galaxy: A postulated
repulsive force from the plasma body situated at the very centre of the galaxy, and the commonly known
contractive gravitational force associated with the mass distribution in the galaxy.
In this chapter, we shall do a rough estimate of the relative strength of these opposite forces,
based on our knowledge of the resulting force being strong enough to keep stars in orbit in our galaxy. The
estimated distribution of visible matter is situated much too close to the galactic centre for gravity to
explain this alone. The outer stars rotate so quickly around the galactic centre that the galaxy should
disperse according to Newton ’s law of gravitation.
Current theories must add vast amounts of a hypothetical mass, called dark
matter, to explain why galaxies aren’t torn apart by centrifugal forces. Our model demonstrates that this
anomaly can be explained by adding a repulsive force at the centre of the galaxy.
There is a huge background K-flux from the universe. Galactic matter situated at
a certain distance from the centre of our galaxy will be subject to forces from the universal K-flux, because
matter in the galaxy modifies the K flux. After interacting with regular matter, some Ks will have a lesser
amplitude for interacting with matter. So even though the K flux density from the side of matter is the same
as the K flux density of the background K flux, the K pressure from the side of matter will be less than from
the background. The lower frequency of K hits from the side of matter on the inside gives a net inward
gravitational K pressure as a force by proxy.
Gravitation is an indirect effect requiring a universal K-flux extremely much
higher than the net resulting effect. The K-emitting plasma body at the centre of the galaxy exercises a
direct force when it emits Ks with a rather modest excess of amplitude for interacting with matter. The
excessive K flux from the repulsive plasma body can be seen in two different ways.
One can think of it literarily as extra Ks, and this may of course be the case.
But it is much more likely that also the plasma body has a K amplitude modifying function. Hence the plasma
body adjusts the K amplitude a tiny notch upwards. We suppose that there is a lot more mass in the repulsive
plasma body at the centre of a galaxy than there is regular matter in the entire galaxy. Therefore this
up-regulation of K amplitude in repulsive plasma must be even weaker than the gravitational down-regulation
in regular matter.
Every single extra hit from the repulsive K-flux from the plasma body at the
galactic centre will carry a direct outward momentum. This opposite force to the gravitational force will
decline with 1/r2 in empty space and in a sphere of matter (when the opposite gravitational
effect is treated separately), but it may decline even faster within the galactic disc due to K scattering in
a disc geometry of matter, where scattered Ks are mostly emitted out of the disc. This scattering effect in a
disc structure of matter will also affect gravity in the same way. “r” is the distance from the K-emitting
plasma body at the centre of the galaxy. See Figure 26.
Fig. 26. Two opposite working forces: Gravitational and repulsive forces in the
Red arrows indicate the attractive regular gravity caused by the
distribution of regular matter. From the centre outwards gravity will decrease slower than
1/r2, where r is the distance from the centre of the galaxy.
Blue arrows indicate the repulsive K pressure from the plasma body at
the centre, and this force decreases proportional to 1/r2.
Black arrows (ΣK) indicate the sum of contractive and repulsive forces.
The magnitude of the background universal K flux is vastly larger than
the repulsive K flux from the plasma sphere at the centre, and the background K flux, as shown
here as the big circle of inward pointing Ks, would be more like the magnitude of the net
Some properties and implications of our model for a galaxy:
The general K-flux from the universe causes contraction in the galaxy
because K signs are transformed, and Ks loose a minute part of their affinity (amplitude) for
interacting with matter, which causes a deficiency of K-flux pressure from the side of
The background K flux acts as a force by proxy and constitutes a
surplus K pressure which results in an inward K pressure towards the centre of the galaxy. This K
pressure is better known as gravity.
Gravitation is an indirect effect requiring that the universal
background K-flux is extremely much higher than the net resulting gravitational
The gravitational field arises in a matter distribution throughout the
galactic disc, and gravity will therefore decrease slower than 1/r2 from the
The K-emitting plasma body at the very centre of the galaxy exercises
a direct repulsive force which will decrease proportional to 1/r2.
The measured net inward K pressure in our solar system towards the
centre of the galaxy is a combined effect of the contractive gravity from the mass distribution
and the repulsive force from the plasma body at the galactic centre.
There is many times as much regular gravitational matter in the galaxy
than what corresponds to the net inward K pressure at our solar system. The repulsive K-emitting
plasma at the centre camouflages the real strength of gravitation from regular
The closer you are to the centre of the galaxy when you measure the
forces, the more will the repulsive force count. Then the extra amount of gravitational matter
must be relatively higher. This is why the matter curve rises faster than expected as you go
inwards in the galaxy, without allowing a higher rotational speed of stars (ref. the anomaly of
the inward moving Pioneer 11 and the surprising drop in inward acceleration).
The further out from the centre of the galaxy you measure the forces,
the more will gravity prevail over repulsive plasma. Note that the total amount of matter in the
galaxy is much higher than expected, and when you move outwards in the galaxy, more matter than
expected shifts from being to the outside to being to the inside of you, and hence there will be
an additional pull inwards (ref. the anomaly of the outwards moving Pioneer 10 and the surprising
increase in inward acceleration).
The matter distribution in the galaxy should be proportional to
observations, only the amount of matter must be adjusted to the net inwards push at our solar
system, plus a variable amount to account for the repulsive force.
There is no such thing as dark, non-baryonic gravitational
There is no contractive black hole at the centre of any galaxy,
instead there is a repulsive plasma body.
Fig. 27. Graphical representation of the two opposite
forces in our galaxy, and the net resulting force, demonstrating in
principle how the two opposite forces will vary with different distances from the centre of the galaxy.
The black curve. Since we know only the centripetal acceleration necessary to keep stars in orbit at almost the
same velocity everywhere in the galaxy, we say that the centripetal acceleration = v2/r = 1 at our
Sun, and that it follows proportional to 1/r between 2000 and 50 000 light-years radius if we keep the
velocity constant. Then we have the black curve for the estimated
net centripetal force = gravitation
minus repulsive force ~ 1/r.
The blue curve is the repulsive force, which follows
1/r2. We roughly guess the magnitude of the repulsive force at our Sun, and here it is quite
arbitrarily set at 20% of the net inward force. When the ratio is set, the repulsive force (the blue curve)
is locked for any point in the galaxy when we neglect screening effects.
The red curve shows Gravitation = Net centripetal force + Repulsive force.
This curve should then comply with the mass distribution and the gravitation it
In our galaxy, we have the contractive gravitational force which we can relate to
G in the equation:
F = GmM/ r2.
But at the same time, there is the direct repulsive K-flux from the K-emitting
plasma body at the centre. One consequence of these two opposite forces from regular gravitational matter and
from repulsive plasma, is that the net measured contractive force we experience on our solar system from the
centre of our galaxy is considerably less than it would have been, if only gravitation from gravitational
transforming matter should be accounted for. The repulsive force from
the plasma body at the centre camouflages the real strength of gravitation from regular matter in our
If the measured inward force at our solar system is interpreted to represent the
entire gravitational force, this will wrongly indicate less regular gravitational matter in the galaxy than
there is for real. We are quite a bit astray if we set the standard by the measured inward force on our own
solar system using the known value of G (the gravitational constant). And the further inward we move, the
more will the repulsive force count, and therefore the amount of regular matter must increase
K pressure in our solar system.
Our sun is more than halfway out from the centre of the galaxy. Suppose for
instance that at our place in the galaxy, the repulsive force counteracts 20% of the gravitational force.
Then, what is measured and believed to be pure gravitation, is a net effect of 100% - 20% = 80%. In this
example, the gravitational force at our sun would be 1,25 times as high as what we measure from the
centripetal acceleration in the galaxy.
When we shall make estimates for masses around in the galaxy, we must increase
the amount of matter more and more with decreasing distance from the centre of the galaxy. See the indicative
relative strength of the different forces in the galaxy by comparing the length of the force arrows in Fig.
26 and the graph in Fig. 27.
As a consequence, if you measure the net inward radial K pressure at the Sun
(what is today believed to be net gravity), and then move to a point further out from the centre of our
galaxy, the net inward K pressure will decrease, but it will stay significantly higher than predicted.
The repulsive part of the K flux will fall off by a factor
proportional to 1/r2 from the centre of the galaxy, or even slightly faster when
you count the scattering of Ks by matter in the galactic disc. The fact that we consider a disc
and not a sphere, complicates the picture a bit.
Being inside a matter distribution, regular gravity falls off slower
than 1/r2 when you move outwards from the centre of the galaxy. Moving outwards,
some regular gravitational matter will shift from being outside to being inside the point of
measurement. Since the total amount of regular matter must be much greater than expected, the
matter shifting side will now perform a stronger inward gravitational force than a regular
calculation would indicate, since the contractive part of the calculation falls off slower than
the repulsive part.
Hence, in the outskirts of our galaxy the net inward K pressure is
greater than we would expect from measurements of the net inward force at our Sun, if we make our
calculations based on gravity as the only force present.
Consequence 34: Gravitation in our galaxy.
The general K-flux from the universe causes contraction in the galaxy
because a fraction of Ks are transformed in matter, which causes a deficiency of amplitude for EP
interaction in the K-flux from the side of matter, and hence a net inward K pressure towards the
centre of the galaxy.
The regular gravitational force is generated in a mass distribution in
the galaxy and falls off slower than 1/r2 when you move outwards inside this mass
The repulsive plasma body at the centre of the galaxy provides a
K-flux which presses matter outwards.
The repulsive pressure falls off proportional to
1/r2 or even faster.
The measured net inward K pressure in our solar system is a combined
effect of the contractive gravity from the mass distribution and the repulsive force from the
plasma body at the galactic centre.
There is more regular gravitational matter in our galaxy than what
corresponds to the requirement for net inward K pressure at our solar system in order to comply
with the centrifugal forces necessary for the Sun’s galactic orbit.
There is no such thing as dark, gravitational, non-baryonic matter,
only regular gravitational matter and repulsive plasma.
There is no black hole at the centre of any galaxy, only repulsive
plasma bodies are consistent with the dynamics of galaxies.
Rotational velocity of stars in our galaxy.
Astronomers have observed that the velocity of stars is quite constant in our
galaxy, it hardly varies with distance from the galactic centre. Why does galactic matter move at about the
same velocity throughout the galaxy, except close to the core? (See Fig. 28.) The rather constant velocity at
any distance from the galactic core, indicates that these masses originate from a part of the plasma which
had the same speed of rotation, more or less.
Hence, the matter which makes up the freely moving stars of the disc in our
galaxy all should stem from the outer layers of the plasma body, indicating that the plasma body must still
contain a lot of matter, probably many times that of the erupted matter. See figures 22 and
This is exactly what you expect when
- the stars of today’s galactic outskirts once constituted the outer layers of
the original rotating plasma body, and then this plasma would be expelled at about the same
- after eruption, all matter is accelerated outwards by the repulsive force of
the remaining plasma at the centre,
- After some time, enough plasma has converted from plasma to regular matter.
Then gravitation will prevail, and the repulsive force has turned into a contractive
- The first matter to erupt, experienced a longer period of repulsive force
(repulsive acceleration) compared to matter which erupted later.
- all celestial bodies start out with almost the same rotating speed at the
surface of the erupting plasma sphere
With normal gravitational calculations for galaxies without any repulsive force,
we would expect velocities that are much smaller than what is measured as you go further out in the galaxy.
Our model explains both why the development of our galaxy leads to our observable speed distribution of
stars, and why this complies with the actual forces at work.
If matter were to “condense” after a “big bang”, then matter would gain speed as
it accelerated inwards. So you would expect a higher velocity of stars as you go inwards in the galaxy. This
is hardly the case at all. Also in this respect do we experience serious problems with today’s paradigm in
Fig. 28. The gravity of the
visible matter in our galaxy is not located in a way which complies with the high orbital speed of stars in
the galaxy. But instead of attributing this discrepancy to some exotic dark matter, the observed rotation
curve can be explained by assuming that there is approximately three times more regular matter in the galaxy
– with the same mass distribution as observed today – and combine this with a repulsive force at the
Credit: Nick Strobel, www.astronomynotes.com, modified
by Trond Erik Hillestad.
Click on link to watch video Forces in a
Pioneer 10 and 11 are experiencing an anomalous
acceleration towards the Sun. It is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, but none has
been found. Our model explains this effect as a combination of attractive and repulsive forces at work in our
galaxy. The arrows show the direction at which the two space crafts left our solar
system. Credit galaxy: NASA / JPLCaltech / R.Hurt (SSC-Caltech);
Pioneer probes: NASA; Graphics: Trond Erik Hillestad
Gravitational strength in a galaxy increases with
It seems likely that the plasma body at the centre of the galaxy will have later
eruptions which lead to a higher level of regular matter fairly close to the core. This new matter yields
contractive forces. Already existing stars in a stable orbit may be pulled back in (they fall in) and take a
new orbit with a smaller radius due to the increase in gravity. In the process of “falling” inwards, the
velocity of the stars will increase.
This effect may explain the somewhat higher velocity of stars at about 2000 light
years from the centre. But everywhere in the galaxy there will be a certain contraction over time as more
plasma converts to regular matter, and the velocities of today will be higher than before. Hence, we cannot
use today’s velocities for exact prediction for the rotational speed of the plasma sphere at the
Estimating the relative influence of the K-flux from the repelling plasma
The estimated distribution of visible matter is situated much too close to the
galactic centre for gravity to explain the high velocity of the outer stars. The lack of gravitational forces
has been compensated by adding dark matter in the outer parts of the galaxy, thereby moving the mass
distribution in the galaxy much further to the outside than we have reason to believe from
By introducing a repelling plasma body at the centre of the galaxy, our model
predicts that the amount of matter in the galaxy is much greater than the amount of regular matter according
to a standard calculation with gravity only. Anomalies which today are accounted for by using dark matter,
will fall in place without dark matter when the two opposite forces are accounted for.
Our model allows for much more regular matter towards the centre of the galaxy
than a sole Newtonian gravitation would allow for. Dark matter is replaced by increasing the amount of
regular gravitational matter which must exist in order to create the known net inward push we measure in the
presence of the repulsive flux from the plasma body. Note that our model adds regular matter in proportion to
observed visible matter all over the galaxy. Dark matter, on the other hand, is added more to the outside of
the galaxy, and thereby contradicting the observed matter distribution of light emitting
How much repulsive plasma is there in the galaxy?
Let us start when the rotating plasma body had its initial eruption. It is
difficult to estimate how much of the total volume was ejected. Anything from less than 1% to several
percents seems like a reasonable guess. But in such a process, it is quite likely that the big bulk of plasma
still remains inside the original plasma sphere after the eruption.
So a fair estimate is that the total amount of regular matter in the galaxy,
which we assume is considerably larger than anticipated today, still just accounts for a small fraction of
the mass inside the repulsive plasma body at the galactic centre.
A method to test our theory.
Our galaxy model imposes a great restriction on the distribution of regular
matter. This makes the theory easy to test. The paths of orbiting stars in the galaxy shall obey the rules of
just a centrally placed repulsive force, and an additional matter distribution creating attractive
gravitation. The matter distribution shall be fairly proportional to the distribution of visible matter in
the galaxy. This stands in harsh contrast to the theory of dark matter, where matter is just distributed as
it suits the math to make sense of galactic orbits.
Our falsifiable prediction for forces in spiral galaxies is:
Use known methods to anticipate the mass distribution in a galaxy,
for instance the measured light emission.
Multiply all matter with a number specific for the actual
Introduce a repulsive force at the centre of the
The repulsive force fades proportional to
From a few observations of star velocity you can determine the
strength of the repulsive force and the number with which to multiply the amount of
From there on, ALL other observations of speed and forces in the
galaxy shall comply with this setup.
No use of gravitational, non-baryonic dark matter is allowed to make
it add up, only normal uncertainty of observations and
Gravitational lens at the centre of galaxies.
A recent report by NASA supports the existence of dark matter. If the report is
reinterpreted according to our model of galaxies, their argument for the need of dark matter to keep the
galaxy together is no longer valid. The measured lens effect of a galaxy is stronger than anticipated because
there is more regular matter. And the lens effect is stronger than expected by the outer parts of the galaxy
where the repulsive force falls off faster than gravitation.
But when you are free to invent matter AND distribute it in a manner that fits
already done calculations, the dark matter idea will always be able to give you correct answers. And they
will even find that the distribution of this dark matter is almost the same in all galaxies – you’ll need
more the further out you go from the centre (as the repulsive K flux falls off faster than
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