General Relativity Gravity curves space, and when you add time, we have curved spacetime, according to General Relativity. This implies an abstraction of the gravitational force, and has led some physicists to consider gravity as some sort of fictitious force, where the path of a moving particle is set by the topography of spacetime in GR. In Forces by Proxy, gravity is seen as no more or no less fictious than attractive electric force, or than attractive strong force.   All attractive forces across empty space arise when particles emit a K flux having lower than average probability for interaction in a certain direction. An average aether pressure from the neutral background mediates all attractive forces. The background aether represent a net surplus pressure relative to the deficient aether flux from the particles. Gravity’s curved space in general relativity is just a representation of K pressure differences.     When aether interact with particles, this leads to a  lowering of the local aether’s potency for interaction. We claim that time is a function of aether exchange frequency with particles. Gravity slows down K exchange frequency and then it also slows down the local aether time relative to aether time outside the gravitational potential. Everything slows down in the most fundamental way when the particle - K interaction frequency slows down. A particle needs more time to gather enough impulse transfers to overcome a potential binding, and this delay goes hand in hand with the potential binding also working at a slower pace. A bonded particle is pushed back to its equilibriums position at a slower pace. The lower K exchange rate of a gravitational potential truly allows everything to develop more slowly.     Definition of Time in General Relativity   The motor of time in the gravitational well is the constant expectancy of K absorption as seen in the local aether time. P(K absorption)/time ~ PK(K retained)·PK(K free)/t0 = PK2/t0 = constant   So when K absorption in particles slow because gravitation reduce K probability of interaction by δPK, we get   P(K absorption)/t ~ (PK-δPKr)·(PK-δPKf)/t= PK2(1-δPK/PK)2/t = PK2/t0 = constant   PK = K’s average probability (cross section) of interaction outside the gravitational potential.   δPK = K’s average loss of interaction probability inside a gravitational potential.   Provided that retained Ks are knocked out in a stochastic process, the K’s retention time inside a particle follows the stretching of time it takes to keep a constant K exchange frequency   tret = t0ret·(1-δPK/PK)2   where we further assume that δPK/PK is the mean difference in potential for the free K from outside (no change) and from inside. For weak gravity in a linear approximation we have               δPK/PK ~ (0 + GM/rc2)/2  = GM/2rc2   tret ~ t0ret·(1-2δPK/PK) ~ t0ret·(1- GM/rc2)   Note that this is physics, not math, thus the total aether interaction frequency with particles can never go to zero, so time never stops anywhere in the Universe because of gravity.     Gravitational time dilation is the necessary stretching of time to provide a constant absorption frequency of Ks in particles.     The local aether frame of reference is the frame of reference deciding the path of photons.   K retention time in a mass particle at rest in the local aether frame of reference is the shortest time available at this location.     Previous: Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle    Next: Special Relativity

Forces by Proxy

Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment

Properties of the aether

Gravity

Particles

The Electromagnetic Force

The Strong Force

Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle

General Relativity

Special Relativity

Scientific Method

Some support for the aether

Authors

Jørgen Karlsen

Einar Nyberg Karlsen

Editor

PrinciplePhysics.com

Jorgen Karlsen

Høvik, Norway

Illustrations:

Tormod Førre

Acknowledgements:

Dr. Ian Ashmore

Prof. Kaare Olaussen