General Relativity

Gravity curves space, and when you add time, we have curved spacetime, according to General Relativity. This implies an abstraction of the gravitational force, and has led some physicists to consider gravity as some sort of fictitious force, where the path of a moving particle is set by the topography of spacetime in GR. In Forces by Proxy, gravity is seen as no more or no less fictious than attractive electric force, or than attractive strong force.


All attractive forces across empty space arise when particles emit a K flux having lower than average probability for interaction in a certain direction. An average aether pressure from the neutral background mediates all attractive forces. The background aether represent a net surplus pressure relative to the deficient aether flux from the particles. Gravity’s curved space in general relativity is just a representation of K pressure differences.  


When aether interact with particles, this leads to a  lowering of the local aether’s potency for interaction. We claim that time is a function of aether exchange frequency with particles. Gravity slows down K exchange frequency and then it also slows down the local aether time relative to aether time outside the gravitational potential. Everything slows down in the most fundamental way when the particle - K interaction frequency slows down. A particle needs more time to gather enough impulse transfers to overcome a potential binding, and this delay goes hand in hand with the potential binding also working at a slower pace. A bonded particle is pushed back to its equilibriums position at a slower pace. The lower K exchange rate of a gravitational potential truly allows everything to develop more slowly.



Definition of Time in General Relativity


The motor of time in the gravitational well is the constant expectancy of K absorption as seen in the local aether time.

P(K absorption)/time ~ PK(K retained)·PK(K free)/t0 = PK2/t0 = constant


So when K absorption in particles slow because gravitation reduce K probability of interaction by δPK, we get


P(K absorption)/t ~ (PK-δPKr)·(PK-δPKf)/t= PK2(1-δPK/PK)2/t = PK2/t0 = constant


PK = K’s average probability (cross section) of interaction outside the gravitational potential.


δPK = K’s average loss of interaction probability inside a gravitational potential.


Provided that retained Ks are knocked out in a stochastic process, the K’s retention time inside a particle follows the stretching of time it takes to keep a constant K exchange frequency


tret = t0ret·(1-δPK/PK)2


where we further assume that δPK/PK is the mean difference in potential for the free K from outside (no change) and from inside. For weak gravity in a linear approximation we have


            δPK/PK ~ (0 + GM/rc2)/2  = GM/2rc2


tret ~ t0ret·(1-2δPK/PK) ~ t0ret·(1- GM/rc2)


Note that this is physics, not math, thus the total aether interaction frequency with particles can never go to zero, so time never stops anywhere in the Universe because of gravity.



  • Gravitational time dilation is the necessary stretching of time to provide a constant absorption frequency of Ks in particles.    
  • The local aether frame of reference is the frame of reference deciding the path of photons.  
  • K retention time in a mass particle at rest in the local aether frame of reference is the shortest time available at this location.  



Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle 



Special Relativity 



Forces by Proxy


Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment


Properties of the aether






The Electromagnetic Force


The Strong Force


Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle


General Relativity


Special Relativity


Scientific Method


Some support for the aether 






Jørgen Karlsen 

Einar Nyberg Karlsen



Jorgen Karlsen 

Høvik, Norway  



Tormod Førre 



Trond Erik Hillestad 

Dr. Ian Ashmore 

Prof. Kaare Olaussen 




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is under copyright protection of and the authors, and cannot be copied without the permission of the editor.


Mission statement has as its main goal to present new theories and models which can help solve some of the principle problems in physics. The topics will range from elementary particles, nuclear physics and quantum mechanics to  gravity and general relativity. A second edition of Forces by Proxy was published as an attachment to the Norwegian journal “Astronomi”, 2017 – 3. Here we present a short version, which was first released on May 17th 2017