The aether is immensely dense, and executes an immensely high pressure on all particles from all directions all the time. Statistical fluctuations cause quantum mechanical phenomena on small scales. In gravity, we look at much larger masses, so we can ignore these fluctuations as QM peculiarities.


Gravity can be provided by masses if the working mechanism of absorption, retention and emission of aether units by particles result in an extremely small loss of the aether units’ probability for interacting with matter. The requirement is that the momentum and energy of the aether units are perfectly conserved through the process – the gravitational effect only reduces the emitted aether’s potency for interaction. 



 4 2015 gravity Mm (1)


The aether flux outwards from a body of matter M versus the background aether flux (inwards). Matter reduces a tiny part of the aether unit’s ability to interact with particles. Aether units with slightly reduced probability for interaction is represented by white arrows. Black arrows represent aether with average ability to interact with particles.


The result is that matter sends out aether units that constitute a slightly reduced pressure relative to the background aether pressure. The gravitational force is all about the relative pressure. There is a slightly lower aether pressure from Earth than from space working on us at the surface of Earth. Thus we are pressed towards Earth by a force proportional to the total target represented by our body’s mass: F = mg. Gravity is a deficiency in interaction probability with loss of hits and the according loss of repulsive impulse transfers from the side of the “attracting” matter.


Since gravity works by setting up a deficiency of aether impulse transfers from the source of the force, we say that gravity is a Force by Proxy, because it is executed by a third party - the neutral background aether flux from space. Thus we claim that we can split space and aether pressure, and explain what Einstein’s curved space consist of.


division of space and aether 


Figure shows how a directional deficiency of interaction probability of the individual aether units from matter results in a net inwards aether pressure in the surrounding space. The fat arrows represents the total aether pressure, and they look the same from all directions, because the differential aether pressure that make up gravity is too small to be seen on a visualisation like this, if for instance M is our sun. When we decompose gravity and show it on the same figure, it is taken out of proportion in order to become noticeable. 


Modified gravitation in very massive celestial bodies.


When parts of the regular K flux get less amplitude, these Ks will react less frequently thereafter.  In LARGE bodies, less Ks are transformed pr unit mass.  Reactivity of Ks in matter will drop off according to a “survival” function. The formula for gravitational potential U should be like 


            U = -G·M·e-aM / r 


Here “a” must be a very small figure, since the new part of the gravitational potential must have e-am ≈ 1 for most kinds of celestial bodies including bodies the size of our earth  .  In general, larger bodies will set up less gravitational potential per unit mass compared to smaller bodies.



2017 exponential grav



A large celestial body illustrating that repeated reduction of K interaction probability causes non-linear reduction of K interaction probability.


Then there is a second factor that also comes into play. What is the working mechanism for how each K gets its probability of interaction reduced? It is reasonable to assume that a K which has had its probability of interaction reduced by 50% through a very large number of interactions N, will end up at zero interaction probability after 2N interactions? Again a negative exponential function seems much more appropriate. Then the K’s interaction probability would lose 50% of 50% with 2N repetitions, giving 25% remaining interaction probability. 


PK ~ P0e-bN. 


But then, who says that a Ks interaction probability can go lower than a certain threshold value due to gravity? At a certain point there may be no more effect of yet another disturbance from interaction with matter. If so, the K’s interaction probability approaches an asymptote between 0P0 and 1P0. 


Conclusion: it is overwhelmingly more likely that K interaction probability can not come close to zero because of gravity, compared to assuming that zero aether interaction with particles is possible. 





Properties of the aether 






Forces by Proxy


Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment


Properties of the aether






The Electromagnetic Force


The Strong Force


Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle


General Relativity


Special Relativity


Scientific Method


Some support for the aether 






Jørgen Karlsen 

Einar Nyberg Karlsen



Jorgen Karlsen 

Høvik, Norway  



Tormod Førre 



Trond Erik Hillestad 

Dr. Ian Ashmore 

Prof. Kaare Olaussen 




The content in this publication
is under copyright protection of and the authors, and cannot be copied without the permission of the editor.


Mission statement has as its main goal to present new theories and models which can help solve some of the principle problems in physics. The topics will range from elementary particles, nuclear physics and quantum mechanics to  gravity and general relativity. A second edition of Forces by Proxy was published as an attachment to the Norwegian journal “Astronomi”, 2017 – 3. Here we present a short version, which was first released on May 17th 2017