Particles The photon    Analysis of the photon, which includes visible light, has given us many clues to the properties of the aether. Max Planck’s famous equation for the energy of a discrete photon in electromagnetic radiation, where h is Planck’s constant, and f is the frequency of the photon:  E = hf  Since h has the dimension of a product of energy and time, he called h the elementary quantum of action.   Photon – aether interaction  All particles, also the photon, absorb and emit aether units at a frequency, fK, which is closely related to the formula for the photon’s energy, E = f·h. We assume that the aether has its own Planck constant,  hK,   that is either equal to h/2, or a part thereof   hK= h/2n                      n ≥ 1    E = hf = hK· fK    A main assumption regarding particle – aether interaction is that free aether units are absorbed by individual aether units retained in the particle, not by the particle as an entity. We demand orthogonality at interaction. Before absorption, each free unit carries  hK (or  hK·√2) in its line of motion perpendicular to the photon’s line of motion. At absorption the aether unit changes direction by 90 degrees. During retention, the absorbed unit carries  hK parallel to the photon’s line of motion. An aether unit’s impulse exchange at absorption seems to consist of delivering its sideways impulse transfer to the photon at large without targeting the retained unit it bonds with in this respect. We assume that the photon at large balance out the units parallel component during retention between absorption and emission.      Particles with proper mass   A particle with proper mass must participate in the same exchange frenzy of aether units as the photon. The main difference is that the mass particles can be at rest and still have energy.  When we extend the formula for energy in a photon to be valid also for mass particles    hK= h/2n                      n ≥ 1    E = hf = hK· fK = mc2   We get that a neutron exchanges more than n·1023 aether units per second when it is at rest and nothing seems to happen. 1 kg of matter exchanges more than n·1050 aether units per second.   Let us look at some basic patterns of particle – aether (K) interaction for a mass particle In the three first red spheres we follow a few specific aether units (Ks) through their interaction cycles with a particle at rest.  At rest, the particle constitutes a ball-like target / probability for aether interaction where all directions of absorption and emission are equally probable. In the last sphere all three processes are shown simultaneously.   Next we look at a charged particle at two different velocities, and how the electric field from such a particle is seen at the measuring point of an observer at rest. Our point is that such a field is actually a K+ or K- surplus flux of Ks, depending on the charge of the particle. So with this figure we know the direction of the exchange of K- with an electron, or K+ with a proton R. Bartolini, John Adams Institute, University of Oxford, 18 January 2011      For v~c then: γ>>1 and the field is squeezed in the longitudinal direction, The field is limited to a “pancake-like” region and in the limit of v=c the field is entirely transverse (the pancake has zero angular spread)    Now we generalize this to be the interaction pattern for all Ks with all particles. Thus a very fast neutron at v almost at c having γ>>1 will exchange all its Ks in an almost transversal direction.    Furthermore, we assume that free Ks are absorbed by retained Ks of the particle, not by the particle at large. Thus we have a concept for how particle-aether exchange takes place. We also assume that Ks retained in a particle travel at velocity c, and the only reason a particle can be at is because at rest the Ks will travel in all sorts of orbital, which in vector sum have zero momentum. ΣpK = 0    Now let us look at a fast moving particle, charge or no charge does not matter: The same particle of proper mass moving with velocity v, now approaching the speed of light, c. Upper row follows a few specific Ks, and lower row depicts average angles of the same Ks at absorption, retention and emission, and finally all together in a steady state. Ks come in perpendicular to the surface, so the shape illustrate cross section / directional probability for K interaction, showing a much higher probability for Ks coming in from the side. This is not an illustration of a geometrical shape. Length contraction causes the particle to appear compressed rather than extended in the direction of the motion when seen from an aether frame of reference.       Previous: Gravity    Next:

Forces by Proxy

Michelson & Morley’s aether experiment

Properties of the aether

Gravity

Particles

The Electromagnetic Force

The Strong Force

Quantum Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle

General Relativity

Special Relativity

Scientific Method

Some support for the aether

Authors

Jørgen Karlsen

Einar Nyberg Karlsen

Editor

PrinciplePhysics.com

Jorgen Karlsen

Høvik, Norway

Illustrations:

Tormod Førre

Acknowledgements:

Dr. Ian Ashmore

Prof. Kaare Olaussen