Quantum Mechanics
and the uncertainty principle
According to
our aether theory, a detectable quantum mechanical (QM) event consists of
two simultaneously occurring, statistically independent subevents, which relate to different cohorts of Ks. Each
subevent varies independently, yet they must simultaneously fulfil the requirements before a detectable QM event
can happen.
The tunneling effect
To understand how the Forces by Proxytheory can explain the fundamental workings of quantum mechanics, let us
first take a look at a mass particle trapped in a potential well. Most importantly – such a particleinawell
system consists of 2 independent subsystems that vary randomly with aether fluctuations.
1.
The trapped particle will experience a random fluctuation in impulse transfers from the aether units (Ks), and will
thus be thrown randomly away from its equilibrium position in the potential well. When such impulse transfers
appears with a large enough cluster in a certain direction, the particle experiences a force large enough to jump
over the potential wall. In our example
it will take 6 standard deviations in the impulse transfer to the particle before it can make the tunneling on its
own against the average barrier.
2.
The potential well itself must always come from surrounding particles that emit a skewed flux of aether units (Ks).
Such confining K emission thus keeps the particle in the well. But the K emission, and thus the well itself, is
subject to the same kind of fluctuations as the trapped particle, thus the well’s potential strength will vary. For
shorter periods of time, the potential strength of the well may be totally gone, and the trapped particle can just
roll out at no effort whatsoever. In our example, that is a random fluctuation of 6 standard deviation less
strength in the barrier.
This is a general picture for the reality of all QM events, they consist of 2 independent
subevents.
P(QM event) = P(subevent at 1)·P(subevent at 2) = P_{1}·P_{2}
Double potential well with potential barrier between the wells and a particle trapped on one side. The QM event
takes place when the particle tunnels through the potential barrier, requiring the combined input of two
statistically independent subevents. Subevent 1 is driven by the standard deviations for the general aether
fluctuations on the bonded particle, shown by the right column of numbers. Subevent 2 is driven by the standard
deviation of the fluctuations in the barrier itself, shown by the left column of numbers. For the detectable QM
event to take place, the sum of the std dev of the two subevents is always 6 or larger in this example. Positive
numbers in the standard deviation is in favor of the QM event, minus goes the opposite way.
Note that subevent 1 may provide 7 std dev while the barrier is raised to 8, and then nothing happens. Therefore,
looking at single subevents as the sole explanation for detectable QM events is nonsensical; we must always apply
the double subevent statistics. This
argument rules out the single subevent as a lone standing contributor having explanatory value for a detectable QM
event. A particle that is bonded is in an interactive relationship with its neighboring particles. This
is a sort of fundamental superposition where the particle can be in any allowed state.
Each subevent has a probability for taking place within a very short time interval we call the event time. Only
when both of the probabilities occur within the same eventtime will the detectable event happen. Let us call an
event time interval for the ith interval, and take the sum over such time intervals. Then we get a probability per
time unit, or a frequency of occurrence:
P(QM event) = ΣP_{i}(subevent at 1)·P_{i}(subevent at 2) = ΣP_{i1}·P_{i2}
If there are 10^{15} such event time intervals per second, we sum over
that number, and get the expected number of detectable QM events per second. The sum ΣP_{i1}·ΣP_{i2} is closely related to
squared probability amplitudes A^{2} in QM when all such probabilities
for a possible event are normalized to 1.
Entanglement
Entanglement was referred to as “spooky action at a distance” by Einstein, because a detectable QM event follows
the “strange” statistics of squared amplitudes A^{2} in QM. We hope
that our description of the underlying reality of the aether can settle the issue. There is nothing spooky about
the fact that a detectable QM event is based on two independent subevents, both with a normal distribution of
directional aether impulse transfer, and the according probability function for two independent subevents. Bell’s
inequality only tells us that detectable QM events work by the statistics of double subevents, not that there is
any kind of bonding of the type that is hinted to by the term “entanglement”.
Superposition and Schrödinger’s cat
Take the example of Schrödinger’s cat. It is locked in a box where we cannot observe it together with poison that
can trigger randomly. With a certain probability the cat will be poisoned and die. As long as we cannot take a
look, Schrödinger’s cat is in a probabilistic, superpositioned state of being both dead and alive. We know the
probabilities as a function of time if the trigger mechanism
has a known, probability per time unit. Only when we open the box and observe the cat, will the probabilistic
setup of 2 different states collapse to a 1 state certainty. But, if the cat is dead, we know that for some
time the cat must have been truly dead, and before that it was truly alive. Hence, the 2 different states
never coexisted other than as an information problem. All the time, the cat was
either dead or alive. This sounds like a reasonable argument against true superposition, but Schrödinger’s cat is truly irrelevant in
QM. All particles are in some sort of superposition all the
time, even a photon travelling in pure vacuum will engage in a dance of superposition between its two main
constituents, the electronlike part and the positronlike part. Only when we enter the dance floor, must a
particle relate to our devices as the second subevent of the detectable QM event. Superposition can be seen
as the continuous exchange between our two subevents. Actually there are particles that are truly
superpositioned in multiple states. Thus a particle, as opposed to the cat, is both dead and alive at the
same time. The only true analogy between Schrödinger’s cat and a particle comes when you open the box  then
both situations describe a single event situation as the probabilistic superposition collapses to a single
state of certainty.
Richard Feynman
had the following comment on QM:
It is often stated that of all the theories proposed in this century, the silliest is quantum theory. Some say the
only thing that quantum theory has going for it, in fact, is that it is unquestionably
correct.
Einstein
was appalled by the fogginess of quantum mechanics, and once said: “God does not play dice”. By saying that he
did not reject the statistical nature of quantum mechanics, but he meant that deep down in the fabric of space
there was a deterministic, mechanical explanation for it all. If in a thought experiment you assume that you at one
instant know all settings (states) of the universe, then the next settings (states)
comes as a consequence of the laws of nature as they play out at the
subatomic level. In Forces by Proxy we would say that such laws exist at the subsubatomic level of the aether.
Instead of looking at the whole Universe, we can better limit this example to a lone standing atom, and say that if
you know everything about the atom itself and the aether surrounding the atom, you know what will happen to it over
the next 10^{20} seconds. As we know, such info can never be
available, and if available, the body of information would be so vast that we could hardly handle it for a second
for a one atom model. But still, Einstein was right, deep down there is a deterministic, mechanical reality
governing quantum mechanics and the Universe. Superposition with probabilistic states with particles in multiple
places at the same time is true, but still there are plain, mechanistic rules that governs it. In our detectable
world, the double subevents of QM allows for true superposition. It is only when you can break it down to following
all individual Ks in a system over time, that you can talk about determinism. Since such tracking is very far
beyond what can ever become our reality, we have better consider QM superposition as our only reality. The fact
that superposition collapses when we insist on controlling one part of the two subevents when we measure,
represents no contradiction at all. The methods of QM is the only possible way for us to handle our elusive
Nature.
Therefore, to underline the omnipotence of quantum mechanics in physics, we would rephrase Einstein’s words,
saying: “Not only does God
play dice  that is about all he does.” But this is not
said in contradiction to Einstein’s meaning with his words, rather as a statement of what the reality of
Nature offers us to work with, when we use God as a metaphor for Nature, as did Einstein.
Nature is
deterministic only in the sense that particle – K interaction is determined by laws regarding the exchange of each
K, but QM events are still only observable as statistical phenomena. It is far beyond any possible detection to
work at the level of the underlying, deterministic laws governing the K aether.
The Uncertainty Principle
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle has by many been interpreted to represent some unknown, almost mystical,
inherent uncertainty of nature. By now it should be evident that according to Forces by Proxy, the uncertainty
principle is caused by statistical fluctuations with random clusters of directional K interaction with
particles.
Heisenberg presented in 1927 the following equation for the position and momentum of a particle, expressed by
Planck’s constant, h:
Δ
x·Δ
p
≥ h
The year after, Kennard came with the precise expression using ћ = h/2π.
The standard deviation of a
particle’s position (x) multiplied with the standard deviation of its momentum (p) is one pair of conjugated variables which is
ruled by the uncertainty principle:
σ_{x}·σ_{p} ≥
ћ/2
Tunnelling, radioactive decay, etc are a typical consequence of the same aether fluctuations as is the basis for
the uncertainty principle. The main difference lies with the number of standard deviations necessary to provide for
a certain QM event.
The mechanism behind detectable QM events depends on statistically independent double subevents. Measured in the
reference frame of the particle (in proper time), such events occur with a constant average frequency that is
characteristic for that particular event. This observation has implications for
relativity.
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The Strong Force
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General Relativity
